Bayat Pottery

A woman is making water jars using a traditional wheel called "perbot".

A woman is making water jars using a traditional wheel called "perbot".

Bayat Klaten , located at Pagerjurang Hamlet, Melikan Village, Wedi Subdistrict, 30 km South-East of the densely populated city of Yogyakarta on the island of Java, where 6,500 people were killed and over 1 million people lost their homes after the May 2006 earthquake which measured 6.2 on the Richter scale, has the image of a bustling pottery centre. About eighty percent families especially mothers in this hamlet involved in the ceramics making to earn a living.

Based on history, earthenware in Melikan (Bayat) has developed for about 600 years old ago. In the grave of Sunan Padang Aran, there is “Gentong Sinaga” in the gate complex of Prabuyeksa, the last gate of Sunan Padang Aran’s Grave. Gentong Sinaga functioned as the container of wudlu water for Sunan Padang Aran and his companions when the time for prayers comes.

Sunan Padang Aran’s (Bayat) Grave was built in 1955 Saka. It was found in the Panemut gate on which there was writing or ancient inscriptions written: “Wisaya hanata wisiking ratu” (in the north). The Sangkakala shows the construction year which means: Wisaya : 5, Hanata : 5 ,Wisik : 5, Ratu : 1. This means that the grave was built in 1555 saka. In the south of the gate, it was written: “I ta 1555 masa 4” meaning that it was also saka year. (M. Dwi,2005 : 8).

According to local community, word “Bayat” is derived from Javanese (tembayatan) which means a mutual assistance. Therefore, all big problems will be solved as long as all citizen work together to solve the problems.

Melikan community states that in the beginning of the earthenware craft, the first earthenware created was a jug, a container for water usually carried by Sunan Padang Aran Bayat as supply in his journey disseminating Islam as far as Melikan (Bayat) Klaten village. Besides, Melikan jug was also used as the means of death ceremony/ritual, where it is put on the grave. Based on the local belief, the water in the jug can be used as supply by the dead person if he is thirsty in the tomb.

Unlike the ordinary ceramics making using flat potter’s wheel, the Pagerjurang craftswomen use a unique device with special technique. They use a slanted potter’s wheel called perbot in local languages with sideway twisting technique. The device is made of wood or thin stones as talenan (thin and flat wood on which vegetables are cut) having 40 cm diameter and 6 cm thickness. Talenan is put at an angle of 45 degree from the center of the turning axle. Then, the axle is tied with a strong silk-cotton tree rope connected to a bamboo as the support. Then, the rope is moved by legs in the forward kick direction. It rotates three times faster than ordinary pottery wheels because of the earth gravity. The downside is the unique wheel cannot be used to create large objects. The product has maximum height of 30 centimeters.

According to local belief, the technique arrived in Pagerjurang because the influence of Moslem cleric Sunan Bayat who spread Islamic teachings in the area in the 17th century. He, Sunan Bayat requested local villagers to develop a device which enabled craftswomen to sit in a modest way while creating ceramics, without having to sit with their legs spread apart. Since then, the technique is just like an inheritance which has been passed on from generation to generation.

The uniqueness of this Bayat earthenware is worth to be proud of because the slanting turning art is only found in Indonesia. In Bayat, this art has already been around since 400 years ago (counted from this century). It was created slantingly in order to facilitate the craftswomen while working since at that time they wears sarong. Earthenware making were mostly dominated by craftswomen while men assisted in the processing of clay and burned the earthenware.

This uniqueness makes these earthenwares superior compared to earthenware in other parts of Indonesia. There are about 30 regions in Indonesia that employ the slanting turning technique. However, nowadays there are only 6 regions keeping this technique in West Java, such as Plered, Cirebon, Parung Jaya, Garut, and two places in Cangkuang where there are only 3 people having this skill in Cangkuang.

In Bayat, the clay used as the materials is gathered from Jabalkat Mountain which is mixed with kaolin and quartz to make it stronger. Then it is battered until it is ready for process. Jabalkat Mountain itself consists of two words, Jabal (mountain) and kat (high); therefore, Jabalkat means the high mountain.

Jabalkat Mountain stretches from south to north; at the northern part of lies Gede Mountain. It has several names; in the east, it is called Cokrokembang Mountain where the grave of Sunan Padang Aran Bayat is located; while in the west, it is called Cakaran Mountain on which there is a grave of Syeh Domba; whereas, in the north, there is the grave of Pangeran Wuragil in Malang Mountain.

There are 2 ways of burning the earthenware. To produce red colored earthenware, it is burned for about 3 hours and should touch the flame directly. On the other hand, to produce shining black colored earthenware (it is more favored due to its attractive color), the burning process takes longer time. The burning uses munggur leaf (trembesi leaf usually used as goat’s foods). To get brown color, the burning process uses straw.

In the burning process, fire should be kept on certain degree in order that there is no flame that will change earthenware’ color into red. It will get the finest color, if the leaves are moist. Ashes from burning process is then collected and applied on the surface of earthenware which are going to be burned (diungkep/closed tightly). The purpose is to produce durable and non fragile product during the cooling process and also to keep the heat.

The arrangement of earthenware which is ready for burning process is by piling them one above another. The shrinkage of the burned product could reach 2.5 cm. Each craftsman is able to produce 50 items having 20 cm height and 25 cm diameter per days. The coloring process is very natural by applying red soil-bath which is filtered into fine particles used as the natural soil paint. For the final process, the outer part of earthenware (or any shape) is polished and then burned again.

Nowadays, ceramics is still produced by Pagerjurang’s villagers. The move towards modern, they use not only sideway twisting technique but also develop the common one to shape bigger ceramics. Water jugs and other traditional household appliances is still produced to serve local markets; and the result of ceramics development so-called terracotta ceramics is produced as decorative objects like teapots, bowls, plates, vases and other interior decorations.

The symbolic values of Bayat earthenware/ceramics is the cultural products which cannot be separated from the life influence of the Javanese people. Purwadi suggests that in the context of Javanese life, there is an old saying: “wong Jawa nggone semu, papaning rasa, tansah sinamung samudana” meaning that in doing all their activities, Javanese people often uses their feeling and disguise their activities.

Those symbols are the illustrations of their abstract, complicated, and wingit attitudes, colloquialisms, and behaviors… These cultural symbols are used to reflect transcendental idea, emotion, and thought (Purwadi, 2004 : 81).

The number of people living in Melikan village based on the village’s monograph up to October 2005 were 3,512, consisting of 1,695 males and 1,817 females, and 691 patriarchs.

The occupations of community inhabiting Melikan Village which consist of 7 hamlets are various. However, most of them work as earthenware craftsmen. The rests are farmers, merchant, and public employees.

One of specific characteristics of social community of Melikan Village is prioritizing the kinship interaction which is reflected in the pattern of community’s relationship, such as mutual assistance, working together, and visiting one each other.

Small industries which are developed in Melikan Village are water-channel, digging well, brick, ceramic, earthenware, wood and bamboo furniture, and tofu and tempe. Earthenware, terracotta, and glazed porcelain industry is well known among common people that also makes Melikan Village, Wedi Subdistrict, Klaten Regency becomes famous. Moreover, it is able to penetrate foreign markets, namely Holland, Canada, and Australia.

Nowadays, there are 211 business units employing 741 employees. Among those villages, Pager Jurang Hamlet has the highest number of ceramic/earthenware industries in Wedi Subdistrict.

Types of Bayat Earthenware
Based on the usage, Melikan ceramic arts can be categorized into two types as follow:
• Traditional household utensils, such as piggy bank, jug, vase, wok (sangon), and anglo (keren). The traditional products are still maintained, especially by the existing craftsmen.
• Ornamental ceramic/earthenware, either for indoor or outdoor ornaments. There are hundred types of items belong to this type; however, they can be classified as souvenir, flower vase, vase (water container), gucci (porcelain earthenware), and garden bench and table.


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Who does not know pottery? Fragile materials made of clay, mostly used for drinking tea, eating pecel lele or for servicing condiment and even used as souvenir in a wedding ceremony.  Actually, there are various clays available, we can see the difference from their color.  Reddish clay usually contains a lot of iron (Fe), and it is not surprising that the water from which the clay is collected also contains a lot of iron.  There is also grayish clay or nut-brownish clay; all depends on the type and elements contained in that clays.  Do you know that without clay, cooking oil we use everyday does not look clear. The marketed cooking oil usually has undergone discoloration process using “bleacing earth”, that is activated bentonite clay.

This clay has unique characteristics and therefore it is applied for various purposes, such as the above mentioned example.  One of this unique characteristics is its ability to absorb water even up to 10x from its own weight.  This characteristics is closely related with the clay structure that consists of layered sheets like layer cake (kue lapis legit).  The popular type of clay is bentonite, with the main component of montmorillonite.  Montmorillonite contains layered structures consisting tetrahedra sheet of silica and octahedra sheet which mostly contains alumina.

Space in between the layers is filled by water and action that is interchangeable, especially Na+ or Ca2+. Depending on the amount of absorbed water, then this distance between the layers is variable.  This characteristics cause clay to be “tough” and easy to shape.  By only heating this bentonite in certain temperature so that the water inside can be extracted without damaging the layers structure and bentonite layers, then adsorbent materials can be obtained.   Chemical activation with acid and also heating process will result in bleaching earth that mostly used in cooking oil industry and oleochemical industry.  The adsorption capacity of certain gases can even be improved by making supporting pillars that connect each layer in order that the distance between the layers of this clay structure can no longer expand and collapse.  The making of supporting pillar is called pillarization. By this process, pillarized  montmorillonite can be made and result in a materials with larger surface up to 300 m2 per gram; some research even create materials with the surface up to 600 m2 per gram.  With this large surface, supported by pores resulted from pillarization, then the adsorption capacity will be multiplied compared to the original material. Furthermore, the pores of pillarized montmorillonite can be filled with carbon nanotubes functioning as hydrogen gas container.  Space in between the layers of montomorillonite clay can even be filed with organic compound with longer chain, usually type of surfactan ammonium from longer chain fat acid.  This organic compound can be entered by exchanging the compounds with cations (Na+ or Ca2+) which previously existed between the montmorillonite layers. The result is a material known as organo-clay.

Organo-clay is used intensively for example in wall paint.  Furthermore, organo-clay clay is used in the polymer-clay nanocomposite making.  Nano-composite consists of polymer and clay is known to have advantageous characteristics compared to its original polymer characteristics.

If the initial structure of clay consists of layers like layer cake (kue lapis legit), then in the nano-composite consisting of polymer and clay, every layer is expected to exfoliate and distribute well and homogenous in the polymer matrix.   By mixing the clay in the polymer to form nano-composite consisting of polymer and clay, we can obtain composite materials that have superior characteristics such as high mechanic power, gas-proof or air-proof, endurance to high temperature and other superior characteristics.   Clay is a material that in the initial stage of development of catalyst technology is used for oil cracking process with molecule weight much smaller for fuel purpose. At the moment, the clay is no longer used as it is but it is modified as such  that the characteristics become much better for the catalyst purpose.  Using pillarization technique, clay can be changed into material with larger surface and more regular pores size. In addition to that, the improved stability towards heating causes the pillarized clay becoming the material potential for catalyst or catalyst buffer.  The existing applications covers the utilization as solid acid catalyst in the raw materials of fragrance, surfactant, biodiesel, and others.  Besides, pillarized clay is also utilized in the fuel processing, either for eliminating sulfur content from the fuel or the cracking process.  Bentonite type of clay are mostly found in various regions in Indonesia, from the west part of Indonesia (Aceh) to Nusa Tenggara in the east part.  This is related to the geographical condition of Indonesia that has many volcanoes.  Therefore, in Indonesia, montmorillonite is available in very large quantity and ready to be value-added and applied as sophisticated materials, such as composite or catalyst purposes.  Now, it depends on us; whether we will utilize these natural resources for simple purposes with low added-value or transform them into high value sophisticated materials.

Author:  Hery Haerudin, Secretary of Indonesian Catalyst Society.
Researcher in Center of Chemical Research, LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science), PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang.

Author: AM Adhy Trisnanto (Suara Merdeka Daily, 2 January 2009)

Since few months ago, government has been rapidly encouraging the awakening of creative economy that is the fourth generation of economy system, after agriculture economy, industry and information economy.  Creative economy relies on the creativity as the main capital. Creativity that is capable to change firewood into high-valued accessories. A clump of clay into ethnical pottery.  Empty laptop display into a series of animation pictures that makes people laugh.

And Indonesia has abundant creative people. At the moment, central of creative people is Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Solo and Bali. While because of no effort of precise mapping, it is also possible that other regions also have creative community.

Each central has different specification.  Jakarta and Bandung is better in the aspect of modern technology, Jogja and Solo is better in stage art, and Bali is better in its skilled art.  If we classify them, creativity of Jogja, Solo and Bali tends to rely on the tradition, while Jakarta and Bandung tends to be modern.

Not long ago, Institute of Indonesian Art (ISI) Surakarta, held an international seminar entitled Development of Creative Industry Based on Tradition.  All speakers, artists or business people said that our culture wealth is a significant capital in developing creative industry.  In the other hand, there is a feeling of discourage to see no regeneration among the craftsmen.

Prof. Chitaru Kawasaki put an example of what happens in Dusun Pagerjurang, Klaten. Twenty years ago, young women as pottery makers are easy to find.  Nowadays, they are the same people that are still being pottery makers, assisted by their small children.  Youngsters prefer to work as labors in big cities which is assumed to be more promising.  They do not see any future of the craftsmen.  The pottery has no worthy selling value.

They are unable to find the access into marketing. Whereas, the pottery is in fact fond by people in foreign countries.  The craftsmen do not master the business technique.  Therefore, their dusun is still in poverty, the economic growth ceased.  The pottery making is still far from being called an industry.  Then the chain reaction occurs: The job as craftsman does not give a pride, social status of the craftswomen who are clearly the support of family economy us still low, children do not have opportunity to have better education. Technology illiterate, marketing illiterate has inhibit the development of this handicrafts that are passed from generation to generation.

That the government started to show a good will to develop creative industry seems to begin from the awareness of the economic potential of the traditional handicraft.  Our handicraft, such as woven cloth, has already reach global market.  Some of them are conducted by foreigner who have better knowledge in seeing that potential.  They enter Jepara, Jogja, Bali to find any goods that we think have no selling value, or even go abroad.   After they are sold in foreign countries, then the goods are interesting for us especially in big cities.  Handicrafts exhibition always attracts many visitors.

Begin to Realize
It seems that the government begins to realize the ability of creative industry in creating national pride.  Even Minister of Trade, Mari Elka Pangestu stated this matter in the dialog with the Association of Advertising Company of Indonesia lately.

The minister put an example of movie, “Lord of the Ring” that succeeded in raising the maker country, New Zealand.  Adidas shoes produce shoes with batik pattern.  If the users of that shoes recognize that batik is made in Indonesia, isn’t it a promotional media of the Indonesian brand to the global market? This is very possible, if there is a brief description about the batik pattern attached to the shoes.

We have very abundant culture wealth.  This country is acknowledged as the richest country of culture in the world, beside Amazon and Africa.

What we need at the moment is the sense of business that is capable to change something simple into something interesting.  This kind of sense of business is what we are lack of.  Just take an example, Kampung Batik Laweyan Solo actually can be packed in a better packaged that it is more interesting.  There, we have to go ourselves without any trained tourist guide, look for product ourselves because there is no detailed brochure available.  There are indeed some direction boards, but they just show the directions without explaining what are there.  There are no coordinated pedicabs or other transportations that can delievr us while going into narrow alley.  It just like a museum without appropriate narration that explain photographs, or objects displayed.  Brochures? “I am sorry, Sir. We’re out of stocks” That is a cliché answer frequently heard.

Our cultural wealth can be packed in various products of creative industry. Handicraft, fashion, music, photography, tv programs, movies, animation, interactive toys, and even architecture and advertising.   If we can put a red line on those packages, then it is very possible that it becomes a comparative advantage for this country. And this is the basic capital of branding the Indonesia.

The dimensional gong has been stroke by President lately, which signifies the proclamation of Creative Indonesian Year 2009. Hopefully the echo will summon the moving spirit of creative economy to start thinking about new innovation in the effort of playing their role to make the nation more prosperous.

Adhy Trisnanto, Secretary General of Association of Advertising Company of Indonesia.

Earthenware pottery is made up of baked clay and calls for extra care in terms of maintenance. Most of the people buy earthenware pottery out of liking for the earthenware things than its usability. Earthenware pottery does add that extra zing to your rest of cutlery and cookware etc in your kitchen. Unlike other types of utensils like the stainless steel or copperware etc, earthenware pottery needs careful handling. The material that it is made up of can crack easily with a hard blow. The cleaning and washing of the earthenware pottery would be little different from the rest of the utensils.

Earthenware pottery is mainly of two kinds – the handmade pottery and the machine created earthenware pottery. Handmade pottery again requires more careful handling than the machine made earthenware pottery. Always remember to check with the manufacturer or the maker of the handmade pottery to find out if it can be washed directly in the dishwasher or not. Whether you wash the earthenware pottery with your hands or in the dishwasher, do set them out separate from other utensils for the cleaning up process. You can’t put the earthenware pottery in the dishwasher along with other steel, copper or the china utensils as this will cause them to break or the other utensils that have harder surfaces can cause scratches on the earthenware potteries.

Avoid using the harsh detergents and scouring washing powders to clean earthenware pottery. The scouring powders can damage the glaze and so use milder detergent or just ordinary mild soap water to clean the pottery. If the food is stuck on to the earthenware pottery do not try to scrub it or scrape it with scrubber or other harsh material. The best thing to do while trying to clean the stuck food from the earthenware pottery would be to soak it in the water beforehand. Soak them only in plain water and not in detergents. Though some of the earthenware pottery that is not handmade can be soaked in the soapy water, avoid doing so for the handmade potteries. If you soak the handmade earthenware utensils in the detergent mixed water or in soapy water, it’s quite possible that it will absorb it and it’s not hygienic anymore to serve food in it. To be on safer side just use plain water to soak the earthenware utensils to clean the stuck food from it and once you have taken out the food particles etc from it gently wash away the residues with a plastic pad and some soap.

While you go shopping for earthenware pottery make sure that the manufacturer knows for what purpose you are buying them. Some earthenware potteries are meant to be only showpieces and can’t be cleaned with water and soap. You can just clean them dry using a dry cloth or if it’s a larger piece you can try using a smaller attachment that comes with your vacuum. However whether the earthenware you buy is for decoration purpose or for active use in the kitchen, do ensure you buy it from a good reliable shop to avoid high maintenance in the future.

Source: http://www.tsdcleaning.co.uk/articles/how-to-clean-your-earthenware-pottery/

Perbot Putar Miring ala Bayat

Perbot Putar Miring ala Bayat

Talking about pottery, what comes in our mind is Kasongan and Singkawang.  Whereas in fact, there are many other pottery central in this country, one of them is Pagerjurang Pottery, Klaten that also reaches global market.

According to its name, Pagerjurang pottery is located in Dusun Pagerjurang, Melikan Village, Bayat Sub-district, Klaten, Central Java. This dusun that is located in the foothill of Jabalkat, around 15 km southeast of Klaten, has been known as pottery makers for generations.   The main product of this pottery central is plants pot, jug, earthenware flask, piggy bank and container of placenta.

The face of Melikan village is not different from other agricultural villages.  A picture of a village surrounded by greenly farmland, hill, and swamp and also the people that always welcome the guess in a friendly manner.  Rivers are abundant with water in rainy season and dry out in dry season. In this village natural environment the people struggle with clay to make pottery.

Entering Melikan Village, we will see a welcome gate; a village nuance of pottery maker is very prominent.  Not more than a hundred meter from the gate, shop line up in each side of the road that displays various shapes of handicrafts product made from burned clay. Each shop has almost similar taste in arranging the display. Three stacks wooden shelves are arranged in alley; the floor is also arranged in stacks so that it facilitates the display of pottery in order that none will cover another. Similar potteries are put in one line. That way, the visitor that usually swarms in the beginning of the month will be comfortable to choose the pottery they like.  One of the pottery shop owner, Mrs. Hirman said that the profit she gets from selling the pottery is five hundreds thousands rupiah per day. “During peak season, it is usually twice as normal”, she explained.

In average, the shop is only used as the display for pottery products.   While in order to see the pottery making process, we should spend our time visiting workshops deep into the dusun.  Along the road of the dusun, the activities of pottery making will be seen clearly not far from the road opening.  Line up of pottery product dried in the yard seems to welcoming our arrival.  Few mothers seem to busy smoothing the earthenware flask in front of their house.  Not far from there, the males load a cart with piggy banks tied in series. Sound of rotating wheel is clearly heard behind the house wall made of bamboo mats when the pottery making activity takes place.  Almost all people in the dusun are involved in the pottery making which is the main occupation of the people of Dusun Pagerjurang.  Every house usually has a workshop and burning furnace for the pottery.  Sometimes, one furnace is used by several houses.  Meanwhile, the workshop for pottery making sometimes does not need special location but integrated with other rooms such as dining room, family room, or kitchen. It can be said that people of Pagerjurang are inseparable from the pottery in their daily life.  They are very intense in producing pottery either small or large scale for export purpose. At leas 2 containers of Pagerjurang pottery are shipped to Italia and Australia every month.

In a house with open door, Purwadi, one of the residences looks very diligence in winding the clump of clay on the circle plate to shape a jug.  In a 5×5 meters workshop, he works among the line of half-finished jug accompanied by a music from his stereo set. Sketches of product size are not only stuck to house pillars but also written in a brick wall and on the cement floor.

While in other room which is actually a kitchen, Mrs. Jumirah, Purwadi’s aunt, is winding the clump of clay in a slanted circle plate.  “This is a slanted rotation technique, a special pottery making technique which is only found in Pagerjurang,” Jumirah explained. In other places, the pottery making process only uses flat rotation technique.

The craftsman sit facing the rotating clay. While, the slanted rotation technique uses pottery-wheel(roda perbot) made of hardwood tree or mahogany wood with diameter of 35-40 cm and 5-6 cm in thickness placed few angles leaning forward.  Besides using slanted pottery- wheel (perbot), this technique is also equipped with pedal and spring made of bamboo, which is operated by foot.  The process of rotating the wheel is assisted by lulup (rope made of spade tree) tied to the perbot shaft.  During the pottery making process, the craftsman processes the lay by sitting in a dingklik (stool) in a sideway position.  The plate that is positioned few angles leaning forward makes the pottery small and short with maximum width of 23.5 cm and height of 30 cm.

This limitation is in fact makes the product of peoples from Dusun Pagerjurang has its uniqueness.  The uniqueness is supported by the quality of clay in Pagerjurang that is according to Purwadi is much better than clay in other area and therefore the product is smoother, thinner, and use no connection.  The technology of pottery making that grew since the era of Sunan Bayat in 1700s contains high ethical values.  Along with the spreading of Islam, Sunan Bayat also taught the ethical way of life based on harmony and cooperativeness.  Principle of harmony and cooperativeness is implemented in the smallest community: a family. In a pottery maker family, there is a division of job among father, mother and children.  The father, for example, has a task to find and collect the clay, burn the pottery, then sell them, while the children help in drying out the wet pottery.  While the mother has a task to process the clay into pottery products.

Slanted rotation technique is estimated to develop as one of the answers of two questions: to facilitate the production process that is commonly done by women and also allow them to do the job based on applicable ethics.  Ergonomically, slanted rotation technique facilitates the women who were at that time wears long kebaya. Ethically, they are also demanded to uphold well-mannered values by sitting sideways and not showing their thigh when processing the clay. Besides, the slanted rotation technique also facilitate the clay to spread because of gravitation, and the product can be process faster in large amount without needing so much power like the one required by flat rotation technique.  A product of pottery in average needs only 3 minutes to complete.  At the moment, most craftsmen in Pagerjurang still use slanted rotation technique and some of them equipped it with flat rotation technique.  The trace of intelligence and wisdom of the ancestors will be preserved although the era is changing.

Source: Travel Club Magazine

Pottery products from Pager Jurang village, Melikan sub-district, Klaten has been attracting foreign tourists from Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Canada.

Head of Tourism Department of Klaten Regency, Sugiarjo Sapto Adji, confirmed on Saturday concerning this great interest from foreign tourists on pottery products from Pager Jurang village.

These foreign tourists have various tastes.  For example, tourists from Australia and America prefer to buy mid-size pottery products such as jug, pot, and vase, while tourists from Japan and Spain prefer small-size pottery such as ashtray, cokek and so forth.

Sugiarjo said that the craftsmen in Pager Jurang villages are very skillful in utilizing the potential of clay in their village.

This village with 168 acre wide and 211 households has abundant asset of clay.  However, in order to improve the quality of the product, the craftsmen procure the clay from the neighboring regencies, such as Wonogiri, as the mixture materials.

The enchantment of tourism industry in Pager Jurang lies on the process of pottery manufacture using traditional equipment such as pottery wheel driven by hands or other manual equipments.  “This is what attracts foreign tourists, they appreciate original craftsmanship” Sugiarjo said, without describing the price and designs of the pottery.

While according to Yadi, 38 years old local craftsman, the quality of ceramic products in Pager Jurang has also been better since they received guidance from a ceramic expert from Japan named Prof Chitaru Kawasaki.
“This master from Sakura country helps us by introducing the technology of simple ceramic burning that produces perfect result”, Yadi explained.

The craftsmen in Pager Jurang also received intensive support development from students of ITB Fine Arts Department and Kyoto Seika University in Japan that finally Pager Jurang pottery finds its special motif, which is natural blackish brown without painting process.

Besides foreign tourists, Pager Jurang pottery also serves domestic consumers, such as hotel, restaurant or local tourist visiting the village.  (Ant/OL-02)

1. Collecting Clay
Clay is collected by direct excavation from the soil containing good quality of clay.  Brown or brownish-white clay is considered good quality. The excavated clay is then collected in a certain location for further process.

2. Preparing Clay
The collected clay is poured with water until evenly wet then rested for one to two days. After that, the clay is grinded in order it becomes sticky and tough.  There are two method of grinding clay: manual and mechanical.  The manual grinding is conducted by step on the clay until it is tough and soft.  While the mechanical grinding uses grinding machine.  The best result is obtained from manual grinding process.

3. Shaping Process
After grinding process, the clay is ready to be shaped according to the needs.  Various shapes and designs can be created from clay. How much clay and how long it takes will depend on the size of the pottery to be made, its shape and design. The pottery craftsmen will use both hands to shape the clay and both legs to wind the pottery-wheel (perbot). The uniformity of movement and concentration is necessary to do this process. The equipments used in this process are the pottery-wheel (perbot), pounder, circular stone, small cloth.  Water is also necessary to shape good pottery.

4. Sun-drying
After final shape is completed, the pottery is dried. Before sun-drying, the rather hardened pottery is softened using water and small cloth then is cast using fire stone. After that, the drying process begins until the pottery is completely dried.  The length of time drying the pottery depends on the weather and sun heat.

5. Burning
After the pottery is hardened and completely dry, it is collected in certain location or burning furnace. The potteries are then burned for few hours until it completely hardened.  The process is done in order that the pottery is really hardened and not easy to break.  The fuel used in this process is dry straw, dry coconut leaves or firewood.

6. Finishing
In the finishing process, the pottery is painted with special paint or glazed to make it beautiful and interesting in order to have high sell-value.